May 30, 2017
Young Workers’ Hopes Confront Reality
As the post-recession job market continues to improve, so has young adults’ optimism about their future opportunities, a Federal Reserve Board survey shows.
What’s poignant about this youthful optimism is that a changing labor market is making it increasingly difficult for young adults to get their careers off to the right start.
Surely, they sense this. Nearly two-thirds of adults between ages 18 and 30 told the Federal Reserve in a 2015 survey featured in a recent webinar that their schedules in “permanent” jobs were changing daily, weekly, or monthly. They strongly prefer future job stability over higher pay, despite the trendy flexibility of the “gig” economy, Uber driving, and freelancing.
“Permanent employment is not the same as stable employment,” Amy Blair, the Aspen Institute research director for the economic opportunities program, said during the webinar. “Without a stable floor, it’s difficult for a person to invest in himself or herself to build a career.”
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has identified 30 jobs it predicts will have the fastest growth, generating 5 million jobs by 2024. Most of the top 10 are characterized by part-time, low-paying, or seasonal work that can make it difficult to put together a full-time schedule, Blair said. Many are the types of jobs that also lack health benefits, 401(k)s, and paid-time off.
The BLS’ top 10 are: …Learn More
May 16, 2017
College Calculator Bridges Class Divide
A degree from a premier college can vault a teenager from a low-income family to the height of economic success as an adult.
To date, 15 colleges have signed on to work with Levine, who initially created the calculator for applicants to Wellesley College, where he is an economics professor.
But disadvantaged students face a multitude of barriers to attending the nation’s top colleges, from getting the grades required to withstand stiff competition for acceptance to the absence of a degreed family member who can steer a child, niece or grandson through the process.
Phillip Levine is breaking down one barrier: the well-founded fear among low-income and even middle-class families that an elite liberal arts college is out of the question.
Levine designed a calculator to estimate how much an individual applicant will actually pay, after plugging in his or her family’s unique financial data, such as income, house value, mortgage amount, etc. – and the calculator is way easier than filling out a FAFSA form. Argh.
What’s new about Levine’s cost estimates is that they come from crunching family financial stats into a program that contains an individual college’s unique information about its financial aid and work-study programs, as well as how much current students pay based on their parents’ financial information [these data are supplied anonymously to Levine]. …Learn More
May 11, 2017
Get Paid What You’re Worth
“No one will ever pay you what you’re worth,” Casey Brown says in the Ted video above.
An employee’s value is also highest when unemployment is as low as it is now – 4.4 percent in April – and employers are scrambling to fill jobs.
Why would an employer pay more than it has to? With unions all but extinct, the burden falls on individuals to ensure they’re paid fairly or well. Low unemployment provides workers with more leverage to get what we deserve. Unfortunately, many of us are not good at negotiating how much we earn. Or we avoid it entirely, because we’re uncomfortable with talking money – especially women.
Women “say things like, ‘I don’t like to sing my own praises,’ ” Brown notes.
One time-honored way to test the waters is to get an offer for a job you might like that pays more than your current position. If your current employer values you, they’ll increase your pay to keep you. It can be a risky strategy. In our free-wheeling labor “market,” however, it’s also the best way to learn what you’re worth, because there is only general information about compensation for different types of jobs.
In fact, management researcher David Burkus argues that the U.S. compensation system is built around secrecy. “Keeping salaries secret leads to information asymmetry … [and] an employer can use that secrecy to save a lot of money,” he says in another Ted video. Translation: a lack of information makes it easier to under-pay you.
Unions know this. Historically, unions posted compensation in the different job tiers in each industry so workers would know what they were entitled to.
In place of unions, Elaine Varelas, recruiter for Keystone Partners in Boston, suggested other places to get this critical information: glassdoor.com, job recruiters, LinkedIn contacts, and even human resources executives at friends’ firms who might provide you with salary ranges.
“People owe it to themselves to do their homework and stop hiding under the discomfort,” Varelas says.
So get out there and learn something that will definitely be interesting – and possibly lucrative! Learn More
April 27, 2017
Gay Marriage: Income Gains Quantified
The U.S. Social Security Administration states on its website that it “is no longer prohibited from recognizing same-sex marriages for the purpose of determining entitlement to or eligibility for benefits.”
Numerous disadvantages faced historically by the nation’s 800,000 same-sex partners are falling away in the wake of the 2015 Supreme Court decision legalizing marriage – access to Social Security’s benefits for a worker’s same-sex spouse or widow is just one. The financial gains from legalized marriage should also increase substantially over time, as more gays and lesbians are drawn out of cohabitation and into married relationships.
A new study, by Urban Institute researchers Karen E. Smith, Stephen Rose, and Damir Cosic, estimates that by 2065 same-sex couples 62 and older with low or mid-range earnings will have about $4,000 in additional net cash income every year. This includes earnings, Social Security and pension benefits, and investment income minus taxes, Medicare premiums and other government levies.
The $4,000 estimate per couple is based on the institute’s population model that simulates multiple financial impacts on U.S. households to arrive at the overall effect. It also takes into account that same-sex married couples will be better able to pool their resources in the future, share employer health benefits, buy a house, and withstand a spouse’s layoff.
A key benefit for older same-sex married couples is access to Social Security spousal and survivor benefits, which were unavailable before the law change. Social Security is especially significant if the spouses have sharply different earnings levels – just as they are to married heterosexual couples in which one spouse, usually the wife, has lower earnings and is eligible for a higher benefit based on her husband’s work history instead of her own. …Learn More
April 13, 2017
Hispanic Retirees: Low Saving, Long Life
Just one in three native-born and immigrant Hispanics working in this country has a retirement plan through their employers. If they do have one, three out of four save money in their plans, which is somewhat less than their coworkers.
One reason for the first abysmal statistic is that many Hispanics and Latinos, recent immigrants in particular, hold down part-time restaurant or hotel jobs at very low wages. But even among Hispanics working full-time, access to an employer savings plan is still much lower (44 percent) than it is for their white and black counterparts (more than 60 percent).
Low rates of saving are compounded by the fact that elderly Hispanics and Latinos will need more money over their longer-than-average retirements. A 65-year-old Hispanic man can expect to live 16 months longer than a white, non-Hispanic man in this country, and Hispanic women live 11 months longer. [One theory is that less healthy immigrants are more likely to return to their home countries, so the U.S. immigrant population that remains is healthier.]
“Longevity is a big issue, but there is little awareness of this” in the Hispanic population, said retirement consultant Manuel Carvallo, a Chilean immigrant to the United States. …Learn More
April 11, 2017
Blood for Student Loans
Illustration by: Kjell Reigstad
Interest in the student loan problem from the media and politicians seems to be ebbing.
The issue does not go away for Joshua Roiland. Every day, money worries grind him down – him and millions of other young adults working through the emotional fallout and shattered relationships caused by debt.
Roiland owes $200,000-plus and earns only $52,000 as a newly minted University of Maine journalism professor. He begins his article on Longreads by describing a 340-mile round-trip drive to a clinic in Lewiston, Maine, that pays him $50 for a pint of his youthful blood. …Learn More
April 4, 2017
Why Parents’ Home is the Millennial Crib
A couple years ago, Daniel Cooper noticed something at the commuter rail station near his home in suburban Boston. A lot of parents were dropping off their adult children every morning to catch the train into the city.
This fit with something he’d been thinking about as a Federal Reserve senior economist and policy adviser interested in macroeconomic issues like the housing market. Are millennials living with their parents longer than previous generations? And, if so, why?
His suspicion was confirmed in recent research with his colleague at the Boston Federal Reserve, María Luengo-Prado. They found that, on average, 16 percent of baby boomers born in the late 1950s and early 1960s lived with their parents when they were between 23 and 33 years old. That jumps to 23 percent of the millennial generation born in the 1980s. These young adults are also more likely to return home after living independently for a spell.
The economists landed on two primary explanations for the big shift. One is that young adults today earn less relative to rents in their area. Second, higher state unemployment rates impact millennials more. In short, young adults often live with their parents for the simple reason they can’t afford to live on their own. …Learn More