December 5, 2017
Changes in Marriage Increase Class Divide
In the 1960s, half of all wives were housewives, and their husbands often earned enough money to support a family. Today, these traditional families are a rarity and two incomes have become essential to surviving economically.
A new joint report by the American Enterprise Institute and the Brookings Institution argues that poor and working-class families’ increasingly fragile family structure – despite the rise of dual-income spouses – often leaves them “doubly disadvantaged.” And lower marriage rates among poor and low-income couples help to explain why “America is increasingly divided by class,” write the authors, W. Bradford Wilcox, a professor and director of the National Marriage Project at the University of Virginia, and Wendy Wang, research director for the Institute for Family Studies.
They explain that higher rates of divorce and of couples cohabiting affected the poor’s marriage rate first and most harshly in the 1960s; working-class couples were next, though to a lesser extent in the 1980s. Marriage is far more common among the middle and upper classes.
The authors cite several economic and social forces behind these trends. The losses that less-educated, lower-income men “have experienced since the 1970s in job stability and real income have rendered them less ‘marriageable.’ ” Stagnant or declining wages for middle- and working class couples impede their ability to afford a home, which is the most valuable financial asset most households own. Couples lacking property may “have fewer reasons to avoid divorce.” …
October 25, 2012
A Dozen Things Women Need to Know
While Squared Away’s goal is to increase everyone’s understanding of how their behavior affects their financial security, substantial attention has been paid to women.
Since going live in May 2011, this blog has posted numerous articles on women’s unique – and often more challenging – financial concerns. Women earn less, live longer, save less for retirement, and are more likely than men to take on the financial burdens associated with caring for children or elderly parents.
Click on “Learn More” for links to a dozen recent articles, from the concerns of young career women to widows. They include “He’s a Rabid Saver; She’s a Spender,” and “Boomer Moms: Take Care of Yourself For Once,” and “You Are Not Alone…”
August 9, 2012
Social Security Advice That Harms Wives
Most financial advisers give troubling advice to married couples about when to claim their Social Security benefits, advice that can substantially reduce the wife’s income during retirement.
Social Security rules generally make it more beneficial for the higher-earning spouse – usually the husband – to delay signing up for his benefits well past age 62. By delaying, he boosts the size of his monthly Social Security check, automatically increasing his wife’s “survivor benefit” after he dies. This holds true for most couples, whether the wife works or not.
A new survey of U.S. financial advisers provided them with hypothetical couples’ situations and asked how they would advise them on when to start receiving Social Security. For the couple in excellent or average health, only 20 percent recommended “that the man delay claiming as long as possible.” This advice leaves most widows with a substantially smaller monthly benefit for years or even decades.
The survey’s finding demonstrates “the lack of understanding of both the benefits of delaying and the compounding factor it can have on the spouse,” said Lisa Schneider, research director for Greenwald & Associates, a private research firm that conducted the study with researchers at the University of Pennsylvania. …Learn More
January 10, 2012
Married Women Gain on Singles
For decades, single women earned much more than married women over their working lives. But new research on historical wage trends finds that the earnings gap is finally closing.
Wages for married women without a college degree have increased faster over the past 50 years than wages for their single coworkers without degrees, making them nearly identical. While single women with a college degree still earn more than married women with a degree, the gap has also closed dramatically: Single women earned $1.12 for every dollar earned by married women in 2006, compared with $1.30 for single women who entered the workforce in the early 1960s.
Married women “have caught up tremendously,” said Chinhui Juhn, labor economist at the University of Houston, who conducted the research with Kristin McCue at the US Census Bureau for the National Bureau of Economic Research. …Learn More
October 6, 2011
Women Lag in Retirement Readiness
When it comes to retirement, we women are in lousy shape.
We live longer, so will need more money when we retire. Yet we work less over our lifetimes and earn 80 percent of what men earn while we are working. As a result, we’ve saved less in our 401(k)s and IRAs.
Not surprisingly, the rising economic insecurity among all Americans ushered in by the Great Recession is more pronounced among women, according to reports Monday by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) in Washington:
- 58 percent of women interviewed by IWPR were concerned they would not have enough to live on in retirement, compared with 43 percent of men;
- 47 percent of women lacked confidence that their resources would last throughout their retirement, compared with 35 percent of men;
- 51 percent of women worried they would not be able to afford retiree healthcare, compared with 44 percent of men.
Financial data support women’s concerns. In 2010, the average balance in defined-contribution plans managed by Vanguard Group, one of the nation’s largest mutual fund companies, was $58,833 for women and $95,675 for men. The median balance was $21,499 for women and $33,547 for men.
Women’s personal retirement savings are even lower, relative to men’s, when one considers that women live much longer. Among women born in 1935, 51 percent are expected to live until age 85 – just 36 percent of men will, according to the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, which hosts this blog. Fully 13 percent of women will make it all the way to 95 – only 6 percent of men will. …Learn More