October 4, 2016
Day Care Costs Factor into Mom’s Work
In 26 states, the average cost of full-time care for just one infant at a day care center approaches or exceeds $10,000 a year, according to ChildCare Aware of America.
No wonder many new mothers (and sometimes fathers) ask themselves: Is it even worth it to work in the first place?
Proposals by both presidential candidates to subsidize care for the nation’s 11 million pre-schoolers amount to non-partisan recognition that parents need some help.
The IRS does provide a child care tax credit of up to $3,000 for one child and to $6,000 for two. But despite this, the United States lags well behind Europe in the financial assistance extended to parents of young children.
The result is that the child care costs shouldered by two-earner American families – the percent of their after-tax incomes that go toward care – are two times what parents pay in countries that subsidize care, such as Germany, Australia, Sweden, Denmark, France and Greece, according to the OECD.
A series of academic studies over more than two decades document a deep and enduring link between steep child care costs and mothers’ decisions to drop out of the labor force.
One study in 2005 found a “striking” impact on mothers when Quebec made child care for pre-schoolers affordable by putting in place subsidies for private day care in the late 1990s, which capped parents’ daily costs at $5. The program spurred big increases in child care use in the province. The study found that universal day care also significantly increased married women’s labor force participation, by 14 percent. …Learn More
September 27, 2016
Annuities Have Real Value
The value that annuities can provide to retirees may not be obvious, but it is real.
Annuities are also becoming increasingly valuable as fewer people have that traditional source of reliable retirement income: an employer pension.
Insurance company annuities, like pensions, pay out a monthly income no matter how long you live. These payments come from three sources: 1) the initial amount invested to purchase the policy; 2) the interest earned on the amount that’s invested before it is paid out; and 3) “mortality credits.”
These mortality credits are the essential element that protects retirees from outliving their savings. As a retiree moves through her 80s, a growing share of the other people in the annuity pool die. The funds they leave behind in the pool are used to continue making monthly payments to those who are still living.
This is the starting point for a new summary of academic research on annuities by the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, which supports this blog. To fully understand the individual studies, it’s necessary to read the report. But here are some takeaways: …Learn More
September 15, 2016
When a Diamond Isn’t Forever
While student loans are a painful, long-term expense, they are also an investment in one’s career and earnings prospects. But what does lavish spending on a wedding provide?
It can lead to divorce, according to a study by Emory University researchers Andrew Francis and Hugo Mialon. More interesting, they suggest that the stress that comes with wedding debt might be the underlying cause for the unhappy outcomes.
Weddings, which peak in early summer and surge again in the fall, have become more elaborate over the years. Engagement rings usually have diamonds – that wasn’t always the case. The average expense for a wedding and reception in this country is now $30,000.
But the researchers found that women who spend more than $20,000 on a wedding were nearly four times more likely to become divorced than women who spend under $10,000. In the case of men, buying a more expensive engagement ring was linked to a higher divorce rate.
They based these findings on data from their own random survey asking 3,151 adults about their wedding costs and current marital status.They controlled for education, household income, whether the person was employed and other things that play a role in whether a couple stays married.
Stress may be the undercurrent that explains their findings: couples who spend more money are also more likely to report being “stressed about wedding-related debt,” the researchers found.
The links between marriage and money are a perennial topic in academic literature. Other studies have shown that divorce creates financial problems, particularly for people closing in on retirement. It just might be that excessive spending on a wedding – usually a couple’s first major expenditure – gets a marriage off to a bad start.Learn More
May 31, 2016
Going Abroad? Is Currency a Work of Art?
As Squared Away readers scatter to the winds this summer, those going overseas should take a close look at the currencies in their travel destinations.
There are some gorgeous currencies out in the world, in places like Sao Tome & Principe off of the coast of Gabon in West Africa. June begins peak season for the island country, which The Lonely Planet says has a relaxed “leve leve” vibe to go with its miles of beaches, “swaths of emerald rainforest, soaring volcanic peaks and mellow fishing villages.”
Sao Tomean Dobra
Currency as art is a refreshing contrast to U.S. currencies, with their button-down images of presidents and buildings. Try the red-billed kingfisher bird on Sao Tome & Principe’s 50,000 dobra – or the curved bow of the boat on Norway’s 100 kroner note.
These were among the currencies selected by the coupon website, Couponbox.com, for its recent spotlight on the world’s “10 most beautiful banknotes.” To see the others, click here. …Learn More
May 3, 2016
Housing, Health Are 1/2 of Elderly’s Costs
How will your spending change once you retire? Will you be able to afford your needs? Will healthcare drain your budget?
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) provides some clues in its data on the spending patterns of older Americans. The pie charts below show the percentage of total household budgets in 2014 that went to everything from housing to entertainment for two older age groups.
The two age groups selected highlight how spending changes between one’s final years in the labor force (ages 55-64) and retirement (the over-75 group). (Note: a household’s age is determined by the age of the individual who responded to the survey.)
The pie charts tell part of the story. Here’s what the BLS report adds to our understanding of spending among older Americans:
- Housing. Nearly 70 percent of elderly homeowners over age 75 have paid off their mortgages, while only a third in the 55-64 group have. But there are other costs associated with homeownership, such as maintenance. And a large minority of older people are renters. The upshot: housing gobbles up about one-third of older households’ yearly budgets, regardless of their age.
- Healthcare. The share of the 75-plus elderly population’s total spending that goes toward health care (15.6 percent) is nearly double that of the younger group (8.8 percent). …
January 21, 2016
Seniors Vulnerable to Drug Price Spikes
Total U.S. spending on prescription drugs by individuals, insurers and governments jumped 13 percent last year – the largest increase since 2001. One in four Americans report having difficulty paying for medications.
Older Americans are somewhat shielded from the full impact of rising drug prices by Medicare’s Part D program, which greatly expanded their coverage. Since Part D’s implementation in 2006, seniors’ average out-of-pocket spending on medications has actually declined, from $708 to $564 annually in 2012.
But a recent trend of price spikes for specialty drugs might be a snake in the grass for seniors on fixed incomes. Since most take multiple prescriptions, they face greater odds of needing at least one of these expensive medicines.
Drug cost stability for seniors “is starting to reverse as newer specialty drugs come into the marketplace,” said Juliette Cubanski, a senior Medicare policy researcher for the Kaiser Family Foundation. Part D plans “are covering these drugs and people are taking them, but the costs are going up.”
They include new breakthrough drugs that cure – rather than just treat – Hepatitis C, as well as medications for rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. Kaiser estimates that a senior who takes one of the 12 specialty drugs it analyzed can pay anywhere from $4,400 to $12,000 per year out of their own pockets, even after taking into account Part D’s subsidies. …Learn More
December 17, 2015
Social Status in the Age of Vermeer
A Lady Writing
By the 17th century, the Netherlands had developed a major financial industry and thriving maritime commerce in goods produced by the country’s textile mills, dairy farms, herring fisheries, and sugar refineries. The resulting large and diverse middle class supplies the rich subject matter for a portrait exhibit at Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts.
The paintings in “Class Distinctions: Dutch Painting in the Age of Rembrandt and Vermeer” are grouped into one of the three classes: the upper crust, the middle classes, and the laborers and indigent.
The Dutch elite – nobility, textile merchants, and wealthy landowners – commissioned portraits “to express and affirm their status,” according to exhibit materials. These paintings are replete with class symbols, such as the gleaming armor worn by princes to highlight their privilege as well as military prowess. The status symbols in the exhibit’s signature 1665 painting above by Johannes Vermeer, “A Lady Writing,” go beyond the silver inkwell and pearls on the woman’s writing table. Status is also implied in what she is doing: “The very act of writing tells us she is educated and literate and has the leisure time to write letters,” the exhibit states.
But in the Golden Age of Rembrandt and Vermeer, the true sign of prosperity was the Dutch middle-class, which was the largest and most highly stratified class. This big tent took in everything from trained professionals and skilled artisans to modest shopkeepers. Middle class people might be extremely wealthy shipbuilders, successful goldsmiths, respected barbers (who performed minor medical procedures), or modest tailors and bakers. They were also often defined by “the [investment] capital at their disposal,” which distinguished them from the rich who inherited their wealth and the poor who earned low wages by selling their unskilled labor.
The Shipbuilder and his Wife
“The very top of the middle class” can be seen in the above 1663 masterpiece, “The Shipbuilder and his Wife.” The shipbuilder, Jan Rijcksen, an investor in the Dutch East India Company, was so well-off that he could afford to commission a portrait by the most fashionable painter in Amsterdam: Rembrandt van Rijn. In the painting, Rijcksen is receiving an urgent letter from his wife, Griet Jans.Learn More