Posts Tagged "retirement"

Stress illustration

Stress is One Reason People Retire

Only about half of U.S. workers in their late 50s can be expected to remain employed at age 63, and less than a third make it past 65.

New research looks below the surface of these broad trends to reveal the role that the specific characteristics of individual occupations play in whether baby boomers can work longer.

It’s very common for people unexpectedly hit with health problems or blue-collar workers facing up to their physical limitations to retire earlier. On the other hand, older people in some jobs have good odds of working longer. A new study by researchers from the University of Michigan and the Rand Corporation uncovered three characteristics that promote working longer that exist in a variety of jobs: low stress, stable job demands and duties, and the ability to transition to part-time work.

The researchers used a survey of full-time workers over time, starting when they were 51 years old, to see when they retired. Their analysis then linked the workers to a separate database of job skills and characteristics to uncover specific jobs that led to earlier retirements (before age 63) or later retirements (after 65).

Research has consistently shown a strong tendency for high-stress work to push people out the door earlier – one example that emerged from this study is licensed practical nurses, who are on the front lines in challenging medical situations. A related finding is that people retiring after 65 are often in “creative or labor-of-love” jobs,” such as writers, musicians, social workers, clergy, and college professors. This is indirectly tied to stress, which is often mitigated by a love of one’s work. …Learn More

Ladies in swimming pool

Seeking Roommate to Share Bills

Maria Machado estimates that women over 50 make up about three out of four of the Dallasites seeking to cut their living expenses either by renting out a room in their home or by renting from a homeowner.

Shared housing often isn’t their first choice. “We like our independence,” said Machado, head of the Shared Housing Center, a non-profit roommate matching service in Dallas. But “house rich and money poor” older women will turn to house-sharing when they become widowed or if Social Security is their sole source of retirement income, she said. Companionship is another benefit of match-ups, whether with another senior or a younger adult.

The Shared Housing Center is part of a national network of programs matching up homeowners with responsible, low-income adult renters. In another form of house-sharing, two or a group of people will pool their resources to buy a house and share the mortgage, upkeep costs, and taxes.

The network created a website, the National Shared Housing Resource Center, that lists agencies in 23 states providing these services. Many major cities (though not Atlanta or Detroit) have agencies, and several states have more than one (California has a dozen). Many programs in the network conduct background checks, the website says.

To find a house-sharing program in your city, click here.  To read about “success stories,” click here and here.

Jamie Hopkins predicted “the Golden Girls scenario” will become more common as baby boomers age, and he recommended it as an option in his new book, “Retirement Risks: How to Plan Around Uncertainty for a Successful Retirement.”

Homeowners “say, ‘I’m going to live here as long as I can, and that’s my plan.’ But if people want to age in place, you’ve got to come up with a way to generate income from this asset.” …Learn More

Why Most Elderly Pay No Federal Tax

Chart: Tax pieA March blog post pointing out that a large majority of America’s older population pay no federal income tax seemed to surprise some readers – particularly retirees who must send checks to the IRS at this time of year.

“[M]y annual tax liability is and will continue to be greater than when I was employed,” said one such retiree.

Readers’ comments are always welcome, and this time they’ve thrown a spotlight on a shortcoming of the article.  It did not fully explore why most retirees – roughly two-thirds of 70 year olds – pay no federal income tax.

According to a Tax Policy Center report, “Why Some Tax Units Pay No Income Tax,” tax filers over age 65 are the largest single group to benefit from special provisions of the tax code designed to help various types of people. The elderly receiving tax preferences make up 44 percent of filers of all ages who are moved off the tax rolls by these tax breaks, said the Center, a joint effort of the Urban Institute and the Brookings Institution.

Of course, retirees pay all sorts of other taxes, including property tax and state sales and income taxes.  But it’s essential for baby boomers to understand this federal income tax issue as they plan for retirement. …Learn More

Photo of a crowd of people

White-Collar Jobs Age-Sensitive Too

Skills that decline with age:It’s widely recognized that blue-collar workers retire relatively early, when their bodies start wearing out. But the assumption has been that people in less physically demanding white-collar jobs can carry on.

However, that does not hold true for all white-collar occupations, according to a newly released study by the Center for Retirement Research, which supports this blog. This finding is especially relevant amid renewed discussions about again increasing the age when workers can claim their full Social Security benefits.

This would effectively reduce everyone’s benefits by about 7 percent for each year the age is raised.  Benefits are reduced either because individuals must wait longer to claim their full monthly benefit (which means receiving the benefit for a shorter period of time) or because they would receive a smaller monthly benefit if they don’t wait.  The reduced monthly benefit would affect people who might be pushed into an earlier retirement due to age-related limitations on what they can do.

Factory or construction workers are classic examples: critical attributes, such as strength and flexibility, atrophy with age. But so do many cognitive and other requirements common to both white- and blue-collar jobs. Memory slips, eyesight blurs, and reaction times are no longer as sharp as they used to be. …Learn More

401ks: an Employer-Employee Disconnect

Chart: How Their Views Diverge

A survey throws a new spotlight on the employer-employee disconnect over 401(k)s that has also been well-documented in research studies.

The survey of 1,000 employees reveals that workers lack confidence in their ability to navigate basic aspects of their retirement plans, while the 200 employers also surveyed have a more optimistic view of how workers are doing.

Consider the most basic question of how much to put away for retirement. Two-thirds of employers believe their workers know how much to save, while only one-third of employees feel they know, according to BlackRock. And while nearly two-thirds of employers believe the majority of workers save enough, a minority of workers does.

Most employers also believe their workers understand their investment options. Yet less than half of the workers say they do – and only 30 percent feel like they’ve made the right investment choices, according to the BlackRock survey. (Full disclosure: BlackRock is a corporate partner of the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, which supports this blog).

Squared Away has written numerous blogs over the years about what academic research and other data reveal about the employer-employee relationship. Summaries of past articles continue on the next page, with links to the specific blogs mentioned: …Learn More

How Federal Taxation Drops for Retirees

Chart: taxes

Taxes are not as inevitable as most people assume. As the chart shows, the share of Americans paying federal income taxes falls precipitously after age 60.

Young adults often have little or no tax liability, because they’re either in school or aren’t yet earning very much. Older people revert to a similar picture, after having paid taxes all their lives.

The peak occurs around age 50, when nearly 80 percent of households pay federal income taxes. That share plummets to half at age 65 and to just over a third at 70, according to The Hamilton Project at The Brookings Institution, which produced the chart. [The chart is based on 2007 data; there may be some changes in current data, though not in the age patterns.]

This is important information for most baby boomers, because their tax picture will change dramatically in retirement. Taxes paid, as well as the share of people paying taxes, decline because retirees’ incomes generally fall below what they earned while they were working.

Further, U.S. tax policy provides additional deductions and credits for people over age 65. While some people pay taxes on their Social Security benefits, this usually happens, according to the Social Security Administration, “only if you have other substantial income (such as wages, self-employment, interest, dividends and other taxable income that must be reported on your tax return) in addition to your benefits.”

As the chart makes crystal clear, tax considerations are a crucial part of retirement planning. Learn More

Rewriting Retirement Header Illustration

A Familiar Dilemma: to Work or Retire

This profile is the first in an occasional series about individual baby boomers who either have retired or are facing the retirement decision.  

Jane Kisielius

Jane Kisielius is at that age – 63 – when she is being pushed and pulled between the work world and the retirement lifestyle that her husband already inhabits.

She retired once – temporarily – in August 2014 from a stressful job as head of the nursing team for the public schools in Quincy, a suburb southeast of Boston. But with her administrative and nursing skills in such demand, she was quickly sucked back into the labor market, this time as a part-time coordinator of a wellness program for Quincy residents. She was asked to help run the new, grant-funded education program after bumping into the commissioner of the Quincy Health Department.

“The job fell in my lap,” she said. “It was kind of hard to pass it up.”

So here Jane sits, wrestling with when she’ll really retire, as she drinks her morning coffee at the kitchen table in her orderly home, a stone’s throw from the historic home of presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams. …Learn More

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