Posts Tagged "children"

Women’s Pay Gap Explained

Lower pay for women came up – where else! – in the foreign policy debate between President Obama and Governor Romney. It affects women’s living standards, single mothers’ ability to care for their children, and everyone’s retirement – husbands and wives.

To understand why women earn 77 cents for every dollar earned by men, Squared Away interviewed Francine Blau of Cornell University, one of the nation’s top authorities on the matter. A new collection of her academic work, Gender, Inequality, and Wages,” was published in September.

Q: How has the pay gap changed over the years?

Blau: For a very long time, the gender-pay ratio, which is women’s pay divided by men’s pay, was around 60 percent – in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Around the 1980s, female wages started to rise relative to male wages. In 1990, the ratio was 72 percent – that was quite a change, from 60 to 72 in 10 years. We continued to progress but it is less dramatic. In 2000, it was 73 percent. Now it’s 77 percent – that’s the figure that came up in the debate.

Q: Why do women earn less?

Blau: There are two broad sets of factors: the first is human capital and the factors that contribute to productivity and the second is discrimination in the labor market. Women have traditionally been less well qualified than men. The biggest reason here is the experience gap between men and women. Traditionally, women moved in and out of the labor force, and that lowered their wages relative to men.

But when we do elaborate studies – my recent study with Lawrence Kahn in 2006, for example – we find that when we take all those productivity factors into account we can’t fully explain the pay gap. The unexplained portion is fairly substantial and is possibly due to discrimination, though it could be various types of unmeasured factors. So in the 1998 data used in our 2006 article, women were making 20 percent less than men per hour. When we take human capital into account, that figure falls to 19 percent. When we add controls for occupation and industry – men and women tend to be in different occupations and industries – we can get a pay gap of 9 percent. This unexplained gap of 9 percent is potentially due to discrimination in the workplace. …Learn More

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Student Loan Prevention: Part 2

Last week, Squared Away published the first five of 10 strategies to help parents and their college-bound kids limit their borrowing through student loans.  As promised, readers can find the remaining five ideas below.

On a complexity scale, finding a college is comparable to buying a house, and some of these debt-cutting strategies are extremely difficult to put into practice.  In addition to the financial challenges involved, the emotional aspects of parent-child dynamics and the college application process are daunting.

But the soaring cost of an undergraduate education has made student debt prevention a top priority for most families.  Here’s more help from college financial advisers.

  • Get Practical

Deborah Fox of Fox College Funding LLC in San Diego said the days of majoring in English, philosophy or history are over – or should be.  Given the financial pressures of college, she said, students can’t afford to “just study what’s interesting to you.”  When weighing future earnings for graduates with such majors, the numbers just don’t add up, especially if the English degree is from a high-cost institution like Columbia University (high cost among private colleges) or the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (expensive for in-state students).

Fox asks her clients to identify skills the college-bound teenager is good at.  When entering college, they should already have a handful of potential occupations in mind.  Then they can focus on relevant internships, jobs, courses and life skills that will help them get a job when they graduate – and begin paying back their loans.  Freshmen should immediately begin testing their theories about the work they’ll want to do – “possibilities they could get excited about,” she said.  She tells clients’ kids to “start exploring them immediately, shadow [people in their field], take someone out for coffee.  Find out what is the day-to-day work like.” …Learn More

Student Loan Prevention: Part 1

It’s panic time! College-bound teenagers and their parents are excitedly touring colleges this summer, or they’re signing the dreaded Stafford loan documents to pay for college in the fall.

One thing is crystal clear in the emotional fog of this exhilarating rite of passage: parents and their teenagers both need to get serious about limiting their dependence on student loans. Squared Away asked several experts on financing a college education for their best tips on minimizing total borrowing for college.

Some of their debt-cutting strategies are difficult to swallow. But since 2005, student loans have shot up 55 percent, to $24,301 per student, for an undergraduate degree that has, as one financial adviser noted, become “ubiquitous.” Yet college places an unprecedented financial burden on parents also saving for retirement and on graduates when they get their first full-time jobs. Debt prevention also requires families to face head-on the emotional roadblocks to an affordable education.

Squared Away came up with 10 debt-prevention strategies. Here are the first five ideas, with five more scheduled for next Tuesday. Links to Web resources are also sprinkled throughout the article.

  • Aid Deadlines Are Crucial

Buy a calendar and red marker and closely track every single deadline for merit or need-based aid – they’re different for each college under consideration.

“If I could give you one piece of advice that would be it,” said Lyssa Thaden, a financial education manager for American Student Assistance, which educates and counsels student-loan borrowers.

Thaden listed four common mistakes that cost parents dearly, requiring them to borrow more: …Learn More

Edited Volume of Research – and More

Resources that may interest Squared Away readers keep coming over the transom. Check out new federal guidelines on what to ask a financial adviser or broker, an edited volume of academic research on financial literacy and behavior, iPhone investment apps, or a summer financial thriller.

On Interviewing Financial Advisers:
Is hiring a financial adviser or broker daunting? How do you know you can trust him or her? These are complex issues, but the U.S. Department of Labor has just released a list of questions that provide a good start to your search. And click here for more such questions, based on research by Boston University law professor Tamar Frankel.

On Financial Behavior Research:
Douglas Lamdin, an economics professor at the University of Maryland Baltimore County, compiled an edited volume of research papers about financial education and behavior, “Consumer Knowledge and Financial Decisions.” The table of contents sorts issues by age groups, starting with “Cognitive Development and Children’s Understanding of Personal Finance” and ending with “Financial Preparedness for Long-Term care Needs in Old Age.” …Learn More

Graduating in Era of Low Opportunity

Philip Seymour Hoffman playing the washed-up salesman, Willy Loman, in “Death of a Salesman,” is all the rage on Broadway. But when I saw the play recently, it was Biff who got me thinking about young adults today.

In the Arthur Miller classic, Willy anguishes over son Biff’s failure to hold down a job in the city. But the irony is that Biff, played by Andrew Garfield, probably did very well for himself after leaving Brooklyn for Texas. I imagine he became an oil baron or wound up owning substantial real estate in downtown Houston.

Young people graduating from high school or college today don’t have the virtually unlimited opportunity that existed in the 1940s when Miller wrote the play: the personal drive to find a job and establish a career is not enough anymore. Young graduates who sign up for unpaid internships and double up on college degrees are well aware of this.

Last year, 54 percent of adults ages 18 to 24 were employed – that was the lowest level since the government started tracking the data, in 1948 – according to a February report by the Pew Research Center. Despite an improving job market, it was only 55 percent in March. Job creation – 115,000 were added in April – is below the pace that will open up meaningful opportunity for young people. …Learn More

Pennsylvania Strong in Fin Ed – For Now

Talking to teenagers taking personal finance at Panther Valley High School in Pennsylvania made me wonder why these classes aren’t a top priority everywhere.

These kids are even teaching their parents a thing or two about money. Jordan Kulp saved her mother $30 by finding a scooter for a cousin’s baby that her mother had wanted to buy on a shopping channel. Now that Jake Gulla’s mother sits in on his personal finance class, she is “spending [money] a little more wisely.”

And William Digiglio’s father wanted to sell a shield for $100 that Chris Evans apparently carried in the “Captain America” movie. William put it up for sale on eBay and snared $20,000 for the shield, which his father had won in a contest. For class projects, “we had to research rather than taking them for face value,” he explained.

statesThese Panther Valley students have helped make Pennsylvania, for a third year running, the state with the highest number of students scoring in the top 20 percent on the federal government’s 2012 test for the National Financial Capability Challenge (NFCC), according to Mary Rosenkrans, financial education director for the state’s Department of Banking.

Pennsylvania also had the highest number of students who took the test (7,404) and the highest number of participating schools (123). (Oregon had the highest average test score: 79.5 percent, compared with 69 percent nationwide.)Learn More

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Marriage Negotiation: Of Chimp and Man

We human beings are close evolutionary cousins of the apes, closest of all to the chimpanzee and the bonobo. But economist Paul Seabright explains in his new book, “The War of the Sexes,” that male-female relationships differ from ape relationships. Squared Away asked Seabright to explain how evolution shapes financial negotiations between marriage or other partners. It all comes down to competition and cooperation, he says.

Q: Human behavior is determined by evolution?
Seabright: Yes. When Charles Darwin wrote “Origin of Species,” he was very, very cautious about saying too much about human behavior, because it was such a big thing to get people to swallow [that] we’d descended from animals. To talk about how human behavior was physically shaped, he didn’t do that until he wrote “The Descent of Man.” My book takes up the question of how much relations between men and women in modern society are shaped by our great ape inheritance.

Q: What is our evolutionary connection to the chimpanzee?

Seabright: The chimpanzee and the bonobo are like our two cousins. We share grandparents with them, a species that no longer exists, and all of us share great grandparents with gorillas. But we [humans] did this funny thing, which is we went into having kids who took much longer to raise. That’s relevant to financial behavior, because we have to look out for the future including the future of our kids, and there’s something especially human about that. Other species look after their kids, of course, but it’s a much bigger deal for us. …
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