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Behavior

Finally Retired? Now What?

Gerry's signIt was Gerry Smythe’s final confirmation he had never quite felt at home working in the Oklahoma airplane manufacturing plant.  When well-meaning coworkers bought a cake to celebrate his and another person’s retirement, they got Smythe’s name wrong on the sign inviting everyone to the break room.

At age 63, he until recently was one of the nation’s 10 million older Americans working in physically demanding jobs in difficult conditions. He felt worn down by the factory noise, carbon dust, and standing all night on collapsed arches to assemble cabin floor beams for Boeing 777s.  His requests for a transfer away from the hard floor never went anywhere, he said.

“It wasn’t really the job – I kinda liked the job,” said Smythe, who retired on May 27. “I didn’t want to stick in that environment in which I was dealing with air pollution and chemicals and decided I’d had enough.”

Now retired, Smythe savors his freedom.  He’s playing more golf, has maintained his obsession with the Sunday crossword puzzle, and might volunteer at an animal shelter. But he also admits to something others have learned upon retiring: it’s a lot to get used to.

“You’re transitioning to a new phase of your life, and you’re not sure where to go. It is sorta scary,” he said in a telephone interview on a sizzling summer day at his home in Tulsa.

Everything is up in the air.  He likes Tulsa but might move back to Tennessee – he once worked at the Memphis airport – or to Houston, where his mother’s family hails from.  Or maybe he’ll find another job. The aviation industry is booming, so a few recruiters have called him. …Learn More

Field Work

401ks: an Employer-Employee Disconnect

Chart: How Their Views Diverge

A survey throws a new spotlight on the employer-employee disconnect over 401(k)s that has also been well-documented in research studies.

The survey of 1,000 employees reveals that workers lack confidence in their ability to navigate basic aspects of their retirement plans, while the 200 employers also surveyed have a more optimistic view of how workers are doing.

Consider the most basic question of how much to put away for retirement. Two-thirds of employers believe their workers know how much to save, while only one-third of employees feel they know, according to BlackRock. And while nearly two-thirds of employers believe the majority of workers save enough, a minority of workers does.

Most employers also believe their workers understand their investment options. Yet less than half of the workers say they do – and only 30 percent feel like they’ve made the right investment choices, according to the BlackRock survey. (Full disclosure: BlackRock is a corporate partner of the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, which supports this blog).

Squared Away has written numerous blogs over the years about what academic research and other data reveal about the employer-employee relationship. Summaries of past articles continue on the next page, with links to the specific blogs mentioned: …Learn More

Social Security Statement Header

Field Work

Could Social Security Statement Do More?

Two out of three working Americans grade their retirement readiness at no better than a “C.”

So how about using the Social Security Statement that lands in their mailboxes, grabbing their attention, to spur them to action?

The statement is already valued by millions of Americans. A survey funded by the U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA) found that people who received statements were “dramatically” more knowledgeable about their basic pension benefits than people who had already retired when SSA started mailing them out in the mid-1990s.

Social Security is the nation’s most important source of retirement income, and the information in the statements is essential to most workers’ retirement planning. Mailed out before every fifth birthday – 25, 30, 35, etc. – and annually at age 60, the statement provides estimates of each worker’s future benefits at three different claiming ages: 62, when they have access to their smallest monthly benefit; the “full retirement age”; and 70, when workers receive their highest monthly benefit. It clearly lays out how much workers can increase their monthly retirement income by delaying when they start collecting their benefits. …Learn More

On the Web

Personal Finance Info – now in Spanish

The wealth of good financial information available from government, university, and non-profit organizations is an antidote to the television and Internet advertisements selling financial products. Squared Away regularly compiles these resources for our readers’ benefit. This newest installment starts with some that are available in Spanish for the nation’s growing Hispanic population:

  • The FINRA Investor Education Foundation translated its short video about why people make bad financial decisions into Spanish. “Pensando Dinero: la psicología detrás de nuestras mejores y peores decisiones financieras” – or “Thinking Money” – explores how emotions get in the way of common sense when making decisions about money. Several other FINRA resources also in Spanish include a glossary of online financial publications and a video about financial fraud. (“Pensando Dinero” is based on a documentary produced for public television; a free DVD of the English-language documentary is also available.)
  • “Thinking Fast and Slow” by Daniel Kahneman was an international bestseller about behavioral economics. To explore another insider’s take on this field, read what one of the field’s founders says about it. Richard Thaler’s latest book, “Misbehaving,” will be published in paperback in May. A New York Times review called it “a sly and somewhat subversive history of his profession.”
  • In just two years, the housing boom taking place in many parts of the country has added
    $1 trillion to the value of home equity held by people ages 62 and older, reports the National Reverse Mortgage Lenders Association. For retirees wondering whether it’s appropriate to turn some of their equity into income, the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, which supports this blog, has produced a booklet on ways retirees can use their home equity, including through reverse mortgages. The online version is free, and a paper version costs a whopping $2.75.

Learn More

Photo of construction demolition

Field Work

How Melanie Paid Off Her Student Debt

Sitting at her computer in the oversized studio apartment she shares with her boyfriend in Portland, Oregon, Melanie Lockert received confirmation on Dec. 10 that her ordeal was over: $81,000 in college and graduate school loans were finally paid off.

She had two reactions. The first was an existential panic. “Who am I without debt?” the 31-year-old asked herself. Then a grin spread across her face. “I started dancing and screaming in my apartment. It was such an amazing moment, and I felt incredibly happy to be done with this,” she said.

Recent college graduates might despair that their day of liberation is far away or might never come. But Lockert’s single-minded focus on demolishing her debt, particularly by accelerating her payments recently, provides a roadmap – and some hard lessons – for those facing a seemingly endless string of monthly payments.

Melanie Lockert

Lockert’s path followed a zigzag pattern, which she documented in a Dear Debt blog that she started writing in 2013. Being debt-free was not her first priority when she packed up her undergraduate loans and moved from California to New York in 2010 to attend graduate school – a decision that would more than triple her total student debt. Paying off her loans required a lot of patience and sacrifice, some risk-taking, and brutal self-honesty. She concluded that she couldn’t accomplish her financial goal if she pursued a career in the field she had studied in college. … Learn More

Money Culture

Prime-Age Job Market Still Weak

Job Market chart

The job market appears in fine form. August’s unemployment rate, at 5.1 percent, is now at half of its Great Recession levels.

But while the media latch on to the unemployment rate in the federal government’s monthly jobs reports, economists like Gary Burtless of the Brookings Institution are interested in a different number that’s also part of the monthly update: labor force participation among people in their prime working years, ages 25 through 54.

They are the heart of the labor market, and the trend in their participation rate paints a bleaker picture of the job market, Burtless noted in a recent report. In August, the rate was just 80.7 percent – and still below the 83 percent level prior to the 2008-2009 recession.

Labor force participation is the percentage of Americans working or looking for work. It’s critical to how the job market’s faring, because when it declines it means that even people in their prime working years are giving up on finding a job, indicating underlying weakness in the job market.

On a brighter note, the percentage of prime-age workers who have jobs is rising, though this also remains below pre-recession levels.

Burtless concludes, “The labor market is healing, but the sustained drop in participation is an indicator that the job market is still some way from robust good health.”Learn More

Social Security poster

Research

Misconceptions About Social Security

It is the most important source of retirement income for most workers. Yet too many older Americans lack a basic understanding of certain aspects of Social Security benefits.

In fairness, many people got some key questions right in a survey that quizzed them about the program’s rules and incentives. But a significant minority, and sometimes a majority, revealed a poor understanding of several major features of the program. As the researchers note, misunderstanding Social Security benefits could lead to poor financial decisions about retirement.

They analyzed responses by more than 2,300 people – all between ages 50 and 70 – to a nationally representative survey administered online in 2008. The survey, which took about half an hour, started with basic demographic questions before moving to various questions about components of the Social Security program.

Brief explanations of some program features appear below, followed by the percentage of survey respondents who provided incorrect answers, according to the researcher’s analysis of the results:

  • The U.S. Social Security Administration calculates pensions using a formula based on the average of a worker’s 35 highest years of earnings. This information is important, because each additional year of work could substitute current earnings for an early year of low earnings – or even zero earnings prior to the worker’s entry into the labor force.

68 percent were incorrect in their responses to a multiple choice question that included the correct calculation as one of four options.

  • A married person who has never worked is eligible for a pension equal to half of her spouse’s “full retirement age” benefit if the non-working spouse claims at her own full retirement age, and a reduced benefit if she claims earlier. …

Learn More

On the Web

Avoid Medicare Enrollment Mistakes

Mistakes made during initial Medicare enrollment can be costly.

Someone with on-the-job health care coverage who enrolls at age 65 may be paying Medicare premiums unnecessarily. Even worse, retirees who sign up too late incur a penalty for life.

“If you’re actively working, that’s the only reason you can enroll late in Medicare” without paying the penalty, Medicare trainer Andy Tartella says in the above video, “The ABCD’s of Medicare,” produced by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Medicare has been around for exactly 50 years. But enrolling in the program is a new experience for every single American who turns 65.   To navigate Medicare enrollment and the alphabet soup of Medicare programs, the following are other video tutorials produced by the federal government and other reliable sources – links are embedded at the end of the title: …Learn More

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