April 26, 2016
Delaying Motherhood Boosts Earnings
Economists have landed on two primary reasons for why women working full-time earn less than their male co-workers. First, their research detects an element of discrimination.
The second reason stems from motherhood, which can make it extremely difficult to simultaneously complete an education or get a firm footing in a career.
But America is changing. Over the past half-century, the typical age at which women have their first baby has risen markedly, from 20 to 25.
This societal shift toward later motherhood has, in turn, dramatically improved women’s financial prospects, concluded a study featured in a book about the financial impact of changing employment, family and health trends.
University of Virginia economist Amalia Miller found that each one-year delay in when women start a family has increased their lifetime earnings by 3 percent. Since first motherhood now comes five years later, she estimates that translates to a 14 percent increase since the 1960s in the typical woman’s lifetime earnings.
Women who wait to become mothers also accumulate more wealth: each one-year delay increases their wealth at age 50 by between $12,000 and $20,000 – or potentially $100,000 more for waiting five years.
Although women who earn more money spend more, “their consumption does not increase proportionately, leaving them with greater accumulated wealth at older ages,” Miller said. “The effects of motherhood timing especially are substantial and significant for decades after the age at first birth and well into retirement years.”
Education plays a large role in the improvement in women’s ability to build up their financial resources. For example, there was a much smaller increase in women’s incomes due to delay when Miller controlled for education.
There is another way to think about her findings: it’s becoming clear to many young women that there are fairly large financial rewards from delaying their first child. …Learn More
March 29, 2016
Work Absenteeism Tied to Money Stress
Most of us know how distracting and stressful it is when our credit card balance creeps up or there’s a gap between a bill’s due date and when our paycheck gets deposited.
But financial stress can also create serious problems at work like absenteeism, problems that can turn around and compound the financial problems.
More than one in four employees who said they deal with “financial stress” admit that it interferes with how well they do their jobs, says a new survey of 5,000-plus workers by the consulting firm Willis Towers Watson.
It also increases absenteeism. The study found that workers stressed about their finances are absent from work 3.5 days per year, on average – nearly double the absenteeism of people who are not stressed. And when the worriers are at work, they are “highly distracted” – this distraction can gobble up 12 additional days per year, interfering with how well they do their jobs, the survey found.
The workers expressed broader concerns than their unpaid bills, too, said Steve Nyce, a senior Willis Towers Watson economist. Many are very concerned about their long-term financial future and retirement. …Learn More
March 24, 2016
Americans Are on a Credit Card Binge
Rising levels of credit card debt are a good thing and a bad thing.
And they are definitely rising: during the final three months of 2015, Americans added $52.4 billion to what they owe on their credit cards, according to a new CardHub report based on Federal Reserve Board data.
For context, that is nearly as much as was added to cards in all of 2014.
Spending rises when consumers have jobs or get better jobs and when the economy is growing, as it is now, said Lowell Ricketts, an analyst with the Center for Household Financial Stability at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. With incomes increasing, he said, “they’re in a stronger position to make those investments like purchasing a new home or renovating their existing homes.” The surge in credit card debt indicates that people are using plastic to pay for things like the furniture for the new house.
The bad part is what happens to over-leveraged spenders when the economy suddenly turns down, which is what WalletHub analyst Jill Gonzalez is concerned about. “We are starting to get into scary territory here,” she said. The fourth-quarter binge “was much larger than usual.”
During all of 2015, credit card balances, net of payments, increased by nearly $71 billion, substantially higher than the $57.4 billion increase in 2014. Last year’s fourth-quarter binge was only part of the story, Gonzalez said. …Learn More
March 10, 2016
A Familiar Dilemma: to Work or Retire
This profile is the first in an occasional series about individual baby boomers who either have retired or are facing the retirement decision.
Jane Kisielius is at that age – 63 – when she is being pushed and pulled between the work world and the retirement lifestyle that her husband already inhabits.
She retired once – temporarily – in August 2014 from a stressful job as head of the nursing team for the public schools in Quincy, a suburb southeast of Boston. But with her administrative and nursing skills in such demand, she was quickly sucked back into the labor market, this time as a part-time coordinator of a wellness program for Quincy residents. She was asked to help run the new, grant-funded education program after bumping into the commissioner of the Quincy Health Department.
“The job fell in my lap,” she said. “It was kind of hard to pass it up.”
So here Jane sits, wrestling with when she’ll really retire, as she drinks her morning coffee at the kitchen table in her orderly home, a stone’s throw from the historic home of presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams. …Learn More
January 7, 2016
Financial Fallout from ‘Gray Divorce’
In the 1960s and 1970s, the baby boom generation had a reputation for breaking down societal norms for behavior – and they’re at it again.
Between 1990 and 2010, the rate of individuals over age 50 who become newly divorced in a year doubled to more than 10 people affected per 1,000 married people, according to Susan Brown, a sociologist at Bowling Green State University. Studies by Brown and others are emerging that show this important trend of “gray divorce” is having negative consequences for baby boomers’ financial security in old age.
“Individuals who go through gray divorce are considerably economically disadvantaged, and they are a growing demographic group,” Brown said. She estimates nearly 650,000 people over 50 were involved in divorces in 2010 alone. …Learn More
January 5, 2016
Few Put Finances First When Retiring
Will you retire when you want to, when you have to, or when you can afford it?
This is crucial, because when Americans retire is more important than it’s ever been to our financial well-being in old age. Yet the research indicates this doesn’t carry enough weight in people’s decisions.
This doesn’t make any sense. The typical combined 401(k)/IRA balance is a slim $111,000 for working households between 55 and 64 years old that have a 401(k). And fewer and fewer retirees have defined benefit pensions, which provide reliable income. More than half of us are at risk of experiencing a decline in our standard of living after we retire, estimate economists at the Center for Retirement Research, which supports this blog.
Yet a recent survey by Fidelity indicated that the majority don’t think about the financial impact of their retirement timing. Retirees and pre-retirees said leisure was a major reason they have retired or would retire – even if they were falling short of their financial goals.
The most powerful route to improving workers’ prospects is to delay retirement, which dramatically increases monthly Social Security benefits and the income that can be withdrawn from a 401(k).
But Mark Zoril, a Minnesota financial planner, said pre-retirees typically do not drill down into their finances, though they have a vague idea of where they’re at. What he often sees is that an important change precipitates the timing of a retirement, whether a friend’s retirement or deteriorating health. …Learn More
December 15, 2015
401(k)s Tapped for Holiday Gifts
Many Americans have poor habits around saving for retirement, but tapping a 401(k) to buy holiday gifts seems beyond the pale.
Yet that’s precisely what some people do. In a new T. Rowe Price survey of 1,000 adults, 7 percent said they have spent some retirement savings on “holiday spending.” Surprisingly, men are more likely to do so than women, who, the survey indicates, are better at planning ahead for the holiday shopping season.
The survey doesn’t specify whether this spending is on gifts or a sleigh ride to grandma’s house, but it doesn’t really matter. When the commercial pressures of Christmas start eating into long-term saving for retirement, it seems to confirm that it’s too easy to withdraw money from 401(k)s, as a recent study by the Center for Retirement Research concluded.
If tapping into your 401(k) to buy gifts has crossed your mind, don’t do it: these seemingly “small” amounts add up. In total, pre-retirement withdrawals from retirement plans deplete roughly one-fourth of a typical U.S. worker’s account balance over a lifetime, according to the Center, which supports this blog. The most common withdrawals occur when workers change jobs, followed by withdrawals to ease financial hardships.Learn More